Xata applies some limits based on the plan level and the API endpoint in order to ensure reliable operation and scalability.

API keys per user40
Workspaces per user40
Databases per workspace40
Tables per branch100
Tables per workspace1000
Database name length255 chars
Branch name length255 chars
Number of columns per table256
id column length255 chars
String column length2048 chars
Text column size200 KB
Multiple type total size65536 chars
Record size600 KB
Request size20 MB
Bulk insert1000 records
Transaction1000 operations
Page size200 records
Offset pagination size800 records
Cursor pagination depthUnrestricted
File size (when using file binary APIs)1 GB
File size (when using Record APIs)20 MB
Query response size (when it includes file content)20 MB
Number of files in a file array50
Max ttl for a signed URL24h

Xata assigns capacity for request rate and concurrent connections at the branch level, in the form of billing units.

The Free plan grants a baseline of 3 billing units in each branch while additional units can be purchased.

The REST API may return HTTP response code 429 as a throttling error when the rate limiting conditions are met:

  • Request rate limit: Total number of atomic HTTP requests submitted per second to any API endpoint under a branch
  • Concurrency limit: Number of requests executing in parallel at any given moment within a certain Store of a branch

Xata uses three Store types with individual concurrency limits:

  • Consistent transactional store: 2 concurrent requests / unit.
    Endpoints: data, bulk, transaction, query, summarize
  • Read replicas store: 3 concurrent requests / unit
    Endpoints: query, summarize with option consistency: eventual
  • Search & Analytics store: 5 concurrent requests / unit.
    Endpoints: aggregate, search, ask, vectorSearch
  • File attachments store: 2 concurrent requests / unit.
    Endpoints: data, file

In case the concurrency limit in a Store is exceeded, requests to it are throttled internally with a timeout of 50ms. After reaching the timeout, the API errors with HTTP response code 429.

For File attachments, the concurrency limits apply to CRUD and query operations on data and file endpoints. For content sharing and high throughput scenarios, the direct access URLs should be used, which are NOT subject to rate and concurrency limits.

Xata's SDK clients throttle and retry 429 requests until they can be processed with the units available. Instead of throwing an application error when you have a significant amount of traffic, it degrades the speed without failing. Whenever a request needs to be throttled by the SDK, it prints an application log with the amount of extra time it took to be processed. To avoid noticeable speed impact in your application, you can increase the assigned units to your branch.

Tips & best practices useful to optimize requests for the Xata API:

  • In case the client receives a 429 response code from Xata, it means the request was not processed so your application can safely retry it.
  • Log and track errors in your application error channels or log streams in order to monitor for throttling errors, so you can make informed decisions for adjusting the units assigned to your branch.
  • For writing records to Xata, use the bulk endpoint instead of the atomic (individual record insert) data endpoint. The bulk endpoint allows batching of multiple records in a single request, which favors the optimal use of both your branch's request rate limit and concurrency slots in the transactional store.
  • For requests to the query and summarize endpoits, consider using the consistency: eventual option to use the Read Replicas Store. This makes it less likely to reach the concurrency limit of either Store type and gets the best possible performance from your Xata branch's assigned units.

Custom plans can increase or remove some limits. To discuss upgrading, contact us by email or fill the Contact Form.